What trees are used for papermaking
Paper Background Formed from wood pulp or plant fiber, paper is chiefly used for written communication.
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The earliest paper was papyrus, made from reeds by the ancient Egyptians. Paper was made by the Chinese in the second century, probably by a Chinese court official named Cai Lun. His paper was made from such things as tree bark and old fish netting. Recognized almost immediately as a valuable secret, it was years before the Japanese acquired knowledge of the method.
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Papermaking was known in the Islamic world from the end of the eighth century A. Knowledge of papermaking eventually moved westward, and the first European paper mill was built at Jativa, in the province of Valencia, Spain, in about By the end of the 15th century, paper mills existed in Italy, France, Germany, and England, and by the end of the 16th century, paper was being made throughout Europe.
Paper, whether produced in the modern factory or by the most just click for source, delicate hand methods, is made up of connected fibers. The fibers can come from a number of sources including cloth rags, cellulose fibers from plants, and, most notably, trees. The use of cloth in the process has always produced high-quality paper.
Today, a large papsrmaking of cotton and linen fibers in the mix create many excellent papers for special uses, from wedding invitation paper stock to special paper for are and ink drawings. The method of making paper is essentially a simple one—mix up vegetable fibers, and cook them in hot water until the fibers are soft but not dissolved. The hot water also contains a base chemical such as lye, which softens the fibers as they are cooking. A layer of paper is left behind. Essential to the process are the fibers, which are never totally destroyed, and, when mixed and what trees are used for papermaking, form an interlaced pattern within the paper itself.
Modern papermaking methods, although significantly more complicated than the older ways, are developmental improvements rather than entirely appermaking methods of making paper. Raw Materials Probably half of the fiber used for paper today comes from wood that has been purposely harvested. The remaining material comes from wood fiber from sawmills, recycled newspaper, some vegetable matter, and recycled cloth. Coniferous trees, such as spruce and fir, used to be preferred for papermaking because the cellulose fibers in the pulp of these species are longer, therefore making for stronger paper.
These trees are called "softwood" by the paper industry. Deciduous trees leafy trees such as poplar and elm are called "hardwood. Some plants other than trees are suitable for paper-making. In areas without significant forests, bamboo has been used for paper pulp, as has straw and sugarcane.
Trees for what papermaking are used Argumentative Essay
Flax, Most paper is made by a mechanical or chemical process. Some high-grade cigarette paper is made from flax. Cotton and linen rags are used in fine-grade papers such as letterhead and resume paper, and for bank notes and security certificates. The rags are usually cuttings and waste from textile and garment mills. The rags must be cut and cleaned, boiled, and beaten before they can be used by click paper mill.
Other materials used in paper age include bleaches and dyes, fillers such as chalk, clay, or titanium oxide, and sizings such as rosin, gum, and starch. The Manufacturing Process Making pulp 1 Several processes are commonly used to convert logs to wood pulp.
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In the mechanical process, logs are first tumbled in drums to remove the bark. The logs are then sent to grinders, which break the wood down into pulp by pressing it between huge revolving slabs. The pulp is filtered to remove foreign objects. In the chemical process, wood chips from de-barked logs are cooked what trees are used for papermaking a chemical solution.
This is done in huge vats called digesters. The chips are fed into the digester, and then boiled afe high pressure in a solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide. The chips dissolve into pulp in the solution.
Other materials used in paper manufacture include bleaches and dyes, fillers such as chalk, clay, or titanium oxide, and sizings such as rosin, gum, and starch. The earliest paper was papyrus, made from reeds by the ancient Egyptians. The modern source fiber is most often cotton, with a much higher value given to paper made from linen, hemp, abacakozo or other fibers. Balsam fir grows to heights of 70 feet, notes the Ohio Department of Natural Resources. A layer of paper is left behind. Many newsprinttoilet paper and facial tissue grades commonly contain percent deinked pulp and in many other grades, such as lightweight coated for offset and printing and writing papers for office and home use, DIP makes up a substantial proportion of the furnish.
Papfrmaking the pulp is sent through filters. Bleach may be added at this stage, or colorings. The pulp is sent to the paper plant.
Beating 2 Treees pulp is next put through a pounding and squeezing process called, appropriately enough, beating. Inside a large tub, the pulp is subjected to the effect of machine beaters. At this point, various filler materials papermakingg be added such as chalks, dhat, or chemicals such as titanium oxide. These additives will influence the article source and other qualities of the final product. Sizings are also added at this point. Sizing affects the way the paper will react with various inks.
Without any sizing at all, a paper will be too absorbent for most uses except as a desk blotter. A sizing such as starch makes the paper resistant to water-based ink this web page actually sit on top of a sheet of paper, rather than sinking in.
A variety of sizings, generally rosins and gums, papermaikng available depending on the eventual use of the paper. Paper that will receive a printed design, such as gift wrapping, requires a particular formula of sizing that will make the paper accept the printing properly. Pulp to paper 3 In order to finally turn the pulp into paper, the pulp is fed or pumped into giant, automated machines. One common type is called what trees are used for papermaking Fourdrinier machine, which was invented in England in Pulp is fed into the Fourdrinier machine on a moving belt of fine mesh screening.
The treess is squeezed through a series of rollers, while suction devices below the belt drain off water. If the paper is to receive a water-mark, a device called a dandy moves across the sheet of pulp and presses a design into it. The paper then moves onto the press section of the machine, where it is pressed between rollers of wool felt. The paper then passes over a series of steam-heated cylinders to remove the remaining water.
Warm wood is used in stead of cold wood. Frees Hunker According to the National Forest Service website, as much as 85 percent of the trees used in the making of what trees are used for papermaking and paper products are coniferous. The chips dissolve into pulp in the solution. Western hemlock's lack of resin in its wood and the lighter color of its inner wood make it desirable as a tree for the production of certain types of paper, such as newsprint. Balsam firs grow best close to bodies of water and the species does well in acidic soil. A layer of paper what trees are used for papermaking left behind. The chemicals used in paper manufacture, including dyes, inks, bleach, and sizing, can also be harmful to the environment when they are released into water supplies and nearby land after use.
A large machine may have from 40 to 70 drying cylinders. Finishing 4 Finally, the dried paper is qre onto large reels, papermakinv it will be further processed depending on its ultimate use. Paper is smoothed and compacted further by passing through metal jsed called calendars. A particular finish, whether soft and dull or hard and shiny, can be imparted by the calendars.
This process leads to a lot of heat formation, which is why the wood needs cooling. It may also receive a coating, which is either brushed on or rolled on. Environmentalists contend that the new growth trees, so much younger and smaller than what was removed, cannot replace the value of older trees. The rags must be cut and cleaned, boiled, and beaten before they can be used by the paper mill. De platen draaien en drukken hierbij tegen een stilstaande plaat, waarbij de vezel bij contact met de platen en messen uit het hout wordt getrokken.
The paper may be further finished by passing through a vat of sizing material. It may also receive a coating, which is either brushed on or rolled on. Coating adds chemicals or pigments to the paper's surface, supplementing the sizings and fillers from earlier in the process. Fine clay is often used as a coating. The paper may next be supercalendered, that is, run through extremely smooth calendar rollers, for a final time.
Then the paper is cut to the desired size. Environmental Concerns The number of trees and other vegetation cut down in order to make paper is enormous. Paper companies insist xre they plant as many new trees as they cut down.
- This causes the fibre to be stronger compared to other mechanical methods.
- Paper fibres seen through a microscope Chemical structure of lignin Defibring of wood pulp[ edit ] For this chapter some knowledge about chemistry is required There are two main types for defibring:
- The chips are preheated before it is feed into the refiner.
Environmentalists contend that the new growth trees, so much click and smaller than what was removed, cannot replace the value of older trees. Waht to recycle used paper especially newspapers have been effective in at least partially mitigating the need for destruction of woodlands, and recycled paper is now an important ingredient in many types of paper production.
The chemicals used in paper manufacture, including dyes, link, bleach, and sizing, can also be harmful to the environment when they are released into water supplies and nearby land after use. The industry has, sometimes with government prompting, cleared up a large amount of pollution, and federal requirements now demand pollutionfree paper production. The cost of such clean-up efforts is passed on papermakiny the consumer.
Plant Fibers for Papermaking. New Trends and Developments in Papermaking. Chronology and Process of Papermaking, Albert Saifer Publisher,