How to write research paper references format
Format of Citations and References 1. Introduction As you write your term papers, it will be important for you to document where you obtained the information cited in your report.
Many of the references you use will come from published sources. Some may come from electronic sources such as the World Wide Web, Melvyl and Harvest databases available through the UC Davis library, CD references and the like, and some may come from interviews. An important component of your writing will be the effective use of reference material. This skill will serve "how to write research paper references format" well in writing papers of all types, not just those required for classes.
For this class, we will be using the documentation style of the American Psychological Association APA, modified with italics substituted for underlining. This format is very similar to that of the Modern Language Association, and these are the most commonly used styles for publishing in the social and natural sciences.
The general form of citations how to write research paper references format the body of the text is to include the author and date in parentheses as above and optionally include the page number s after the date.
- There are several methods of doing this:
- On the following page, begin with the Body of the paper.
- Check with your publisher if in doubt.
If the author's name was just mentioned in the text, it is not necessary to repeat it in the citation. The rules are described in more detail, with examples, in section 3. Basic Guidelines The purpose of the term paper in ECS 15 is for you to learn how to do effective research on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information.
A research paper requires searching for information pertinent to a given subject, organizing it, and presenting it effectively in written form. Oral research reports how to write research paper references format also useful, but this course does not cover them. In the how to write research paper references format sections, we will present the way that we want you to cite your references in the term paper for this course.
The required format meets the accepted practices cited in Li and Cranea reference that is currently considered the best authority on citing electronic sources. This book in turn follows the basic format for the American Psychological Association APA,which is a good format though by no means the only acceptable one in technical publications.
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You may be required to use slightly different formats for other papers, such as papers submitted for publication to refereed journals, each of which typically have their own styles. Learning how to follow one such set of rules is a worthwhile exercise. You will therefore be expected to use the format set out below. In-text Citation to References When citing a reference from your reference list, please use the following conventions.
Put in parentheses the author s last names, the year, and optionally the page number s separated by commas. For one author, use the author's last name and year separated by a comma. Walters, or Austin, For more than five authors, use the first author's last name and "et al. For the date, use the year. If there are two references by the same author s for the same year, use letters after the year: If there are specific page numbers for a citation, add them after the year Walters,pp. If you include the author's name s in the text of a sentence in the paper, you may omit their names from the parentheses as follows: Do not use footnotes in this class for citations.
The abstract should include the purpose, thesis, and conclusions of your paper and be accurate, self-contained, concise, coherent, and readable. If "Anonymous" is specified as the author, treat it as if it were a real name: There are many note-taking systems available to assist you, but it is essential that you keep track of which ideas came from which sources. An introduction for novice and intermediate programmers. Surgical techniques in orthopaedics: Author s rsferences editor s or translator s Klarsfeld A, Revah F. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 3d ed.
You can use them for explanatory text, but not for references. Have the citation make it easy to find the reference in the "References" section. All references in that section should be complete enough for readers to obtain a copy for themselves. Your List of References Create a list of references, one for each item cited in the paper, in a section called "References".
Issue with no volume Sabatier R. When citing a work how to write research paper references format two, three, four, or five authors within the text of the paper, name them all in the first entry, e. Forthcoming journal article or book Journal article: Major Paper Sections Your essay should include four major sections: In the bibliographic references, also use the name Anonymous as author. Volume with no issue or other subdivision Reearch DA. E-mail to Shirley Jackson sjacks55 lottery.
This section goes at the end of your paper. The references are to be alphabetized by the fist author's last name, or if no author is listed the organization or title. If you cite more than one paper by the same first author, sort them by year of publication, earliest year first. Do not use footnotes for citations.
Single-space the entries in your list of references. Start at the left margin for the first line of each bibliography entry. Each additional line of each entry should be indented a reasonable amount. Separate the entries with a blank line. Do not number the references. Doing so means you have to renumber all the references whenever you insert a new reference. Author, Date, and Title The general format for the author, title, and date in your reference list is as follows: Author First author's last name, followed by the initials.
If there are two authors, separate their names with "and". For three how to write research paper references format more authors, separate all but the last author's name with commas, and use "and" before the last author's name in the list. If published by an agency with no author given, list the name of how to write research paper references format agency. End with a period.
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National Bureau of Standards. Date Enclose the date in parentheses. Use a date sufficiently specific for the item. For example, give the year of publication for a book, the year and month of publication for a monthly magazine or journal, and the year, month, and day for a newspaper or rssearch periodical. Title If the title is that of an article, use the regular font; if it is the title of a book, italicize it.
Capitalize only the first format of the first word and proper nouns. If there is a subtitle, it too should begin with a capital letter. For example, an article's title would look like: An introduction for novice and intermediate programmers. Journals, Magazines, and Newspapers The following apply to citing the name and identifying information for journals, magazines, newspapers, and periodicals in general. Title When citing the name of a journal, magazine or newspaper, write the name in italics, with reseach words capitalized except for articles, prepositions and conjunctions.
Volume, number, and page numbers Give the volume number in italics, followed by the issue number in parentheses if there is an issue numberand the page number s.
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For magazines, precede page numbers with "p. Communications of the ACM, 27 2 Journal of Advertising Research, 32, Publisher and Location Give the city and state if in the United Statesfollowed by a colon and the publisher name, followed by a period. Interviews If you choose to include any personal interviews, reference them with the person's name, their professional title and employer, and the date, time, and place of the interview.
These can serve as appropriate references for research reports and term papers. It is important, however, to acknowledge the sources of these documents, even though you may never have seen "hard copy" printed versions of the file s you wish to cite.
This section describes how you are to cite references that you have obtained from electronic repositories. The basic form of your reference will be similar to printed references, but you will need to add some important additional information: In general, if you wish to cite an electronic file, you should include either the term "[Online]" or the term "[CDROM]" enclosed in square brackets before the closing period terminating the title of the work cited. If you are citing a part of a larger work, you should give the title, followed by a comma, the word "In" followed by the larger work, and then add "[Online]" or "[CDROM]" as appropriate, followed by a period.
Citing the availability of an electronic document should give the reader enough information to know where to locate the file and, if necessary, the specific portion of the file cited. Electronic documents can come from several types of locations: Generally, giving the site Internet-style server name on which the information resides, the name of the file, and the complete path list of directories showing how to get to it is sufficient. Business Periodicals Ondisk Item Samples of Complete References All of the examples given above may be summarized by citing a few references in the form we would like you to use.
Here are some examples that would be cited in the text as Crosley,Essinger,May 28, pp. Printed Book Crosley, L.
When necessary, report the complete URL in the text including the site author's name: Have the citation make it easy to find the reference in the "References" section. If there are two references by the same author s for the same year, use letters after the year: If the author's name was just wrjte in the text, it is not necessary to repeat it in the citation. Basic Guidelines The purpose of the term paper in ECS 15 is for you to learn how to do effective research on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information. Be sure to describe the methods through which data was collected. The Writing Center has these and other more info on hand, and Writing Center tutors can help you to use them. APA's Council of Representatives endorses new standards for testing, high school psychology.
The architects' guide to computer-aided-design. Magazine Article Essinger, J. Just another tool of your trade. Journal Article Armstrong, P. British Medical Journal 2 Interview Computer, Christopher C.
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Children's research and methods: Business Periodicals Ondisk Item: Thu, 30 Nov Watson, L, and Dallwitz, M. Grass genera of the world-interactive identification and information retrieval. A read more to citing electronic information.