Abstracts What this handout is about This handout provides definitions and examples of the two main types of abstracts: It also provides guidelines for constructing an abstract and general tips for you to keep in mind when drafting. Finally, it includes a few examples of abstracts abstrract down into their component parts. What is an abstract. An abstract is a self-contained, short, and powerful statement that describes a larger work. Components vary according to discipline.
An abstract of a social science or scientific work may contain the scope, purpose, results, and contents of the work. An asbtract of a humanities work may contain the thesis, background, and conclusion of the larger work. An abstract is not a review, nor does it evaluate the work being abstracted. While it contains key words found in the larger work, the abstract is an original document rather than an excerpted passage. Why write an abstract. You may write an abstract for various reasons.
The two most important are selection and indexing. Abstracts allow readers who may be interested in a longer work to quickly decide whether it is worth their time to read it. Also, many online databases use abstracts to index larger works. Therefore, abstracts should contain keywords and phrases hkw allow for easy searching. A good first place to start your research is to search Dissertation Abstracts International for all dissertations that deal with the interaction between newspapers and politics. That is still a fair number of dissertations.
Introduction Current theories focus on personal characteristics to explain wrong-doing and how someone can intentionally harm others. In the recent war trial with Adolph Eichmann, he claims to "only have been following orders". The author wanted to test whether this is true, or just a cheap explanation.
Can people harm others because they obey the orders. Are good-hearted people able to do this. The experiment will test whether a person can keep giving electric shocks to another person just because they resexrch told to do so. The expectation is that very few will keep giving shocks, and that most persons will disobey the order.
Methods Participants There were male 30 participants participating. Instruments A "shock generator" was used to trick the participants into thinking that they gave shock to another person in another room. Rdsearch shock generator had switches labeled with different voltages, starting at 30 volts and increasing in volt increments all the way up to volts.
The switches were also labeled with terms which reminded the participant of how dangerous the shocks were. Procedures The participant met another "participant" in the waiting room before the smple. The other "participant" was an actor. Each participant got the role as a "teacher" who would then deliver a shock to the actor "learner" every time an incorrect answer was produced. The participant believed that he was delivering real shocks to the learner. The learner was a confederate who how pretend to be shocked. As the experiment progressed, the teacher would hear the learner plead to be released and complain about a heart condition.
Once the volt level had been reached, the learner banged on the wall and demanded to be released. Beyond this point, the learner became completely silent and refused to answer any more questions.
Format How To Outline a Term Paper The outline should be made before researching and writing because this will serve as your skeleton as you continue on your work. There are a lot of paper templates to choose from, but most of the time your instructor will require a certain format for the whole class to follow.
The main parts should include an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. However, sometimes you are free to choose your own topic, read articles, news, magazines, and blogs to get ideas for a term paper topic. Make sure that the topic you choose will fulfill the objectives of your course and will interest you. If a certain topic interest you, researching and writing about it will be easier and more fun. The following should be considered when choosing a topic: Consider the length of the required paper. Will it be a page long or 5-page short. How many words are required. Considering the length will help you choose a certain topic because you will be able to decide how broad your subject will be.
Check out your school or community library for available resources. Go through available online research resources and make sure you will have hands on books and other materials needed for reference. Make sure that you will read more able to explain your topic no matter how complex it may be. Let your professor explain a certain area in your topic. How To Start Before starting, make sure to follow instructions given to you.
Clarifications should be made with your instructor before doing any research or writing work. If you want quality work how to write term paper outline a high grade, plan ahead and make time every day for writing your paper. Allot time for proofreading your work before handing it to your professor. A good way to start is by creating a compelling and creative title. Take note of the parts as you research and write away. Structure Example The structure should be organized and well-researched. Technical writing skills should be crucial in organizing your ideas.
Uow a marketing document and a technical document, yet it doesn't go too far in either direction. A good white paper is informative and is designed to show off the advantages of a product or technology. White papers are perhaps the most challenging type of technical document to write. They require a deep understanding both of a product's technology and of its application in solving a technical business problem.
White papers are tuned specifically to: Show that the vendor understands customer problems; Describe the vendor's technology; and Explain why whote technology is the customer's best choice among available products. One white paper author suggests thinking wrrite your audience as investors, and that's not a bad way to approach writing the paper. An informal tone is best; use acronyms and abbreviations sparingly. Use plain English, ho matter how much someone insists on using more technical language. The objective is to educate, inform, and convince, not to geekspeak or marketspeak the reader to death.
That's not to say that the white paper isn't slanted -- it is, in the end, an opinion piece. But it also provides real information that the reader can use. Remember the old training aphorism: Tell them what you're going to tell them. Tell them what you told them. Here's a fairly standard outline for a technical white paper: Abstract -- A one-paragraph description of what the paper is about.
Do not state the conclusion here; simply tell the reader what the purpose of the paper is. Customers frequently read only the abstract and conclusion of white papers, so provide material that gives them a good reason to read the details. Be straightforward and succinct.
Avoid obfuscatory language, or what one white paper author calls "hidden assumptions. While this is not the place to describe how the product solves the problem, the section is oriented so that the reader will be able to understand the product's application to the problem. This and the following section are the meat of the white paper. How the Product Solves the Problem -- How the application of the product solves the problem. Provide evidence of how the product solves the problem, and why it is the best solution available. Technical white paper how to write -- A one-paragraph summary of why the product is the best solution to the problem.
There are many good examples of white papers available on the Internet.
In many cases, you will need to write a research paper proposal before you write your actual paper. Ultimately, your professors will grade your final paper on your ability to interpret and intelligently twrm your topic and be able backup your findings with solid evidence. To be able to achieve this goal, you need to provide evidence that you are on the right path with a well thought out research paper proposal. Below is a research paper proposal template for you to use. You will need to fill your information into the [ ] brackets where I have instructions tetm tips for you.
Keep in mind that your professor may have some different requirements based upon their preferences. However, the following fields pfoposal suffice article source most of your needs. Write why you are specifically interested in this topic and how it will benefit advancing your education. Often your thesis will be more effective if it answers a how or why question instead of a who, what, when or where query. Approach to the subject of my paper: There are several ways you can present material in your paper in support of your thesis statement. Will you have to define certain terms.
Will you include anecdotal evidence. Will you include opposing views and comparing and contrasting them to your views. You want to think of a logical, orderly fashion in which you will lay out your research paper so it transitions well from thesis to conclusion. Your choice of target audience should influence your approach.
Selecting a specific intended audience will define the level of education and biases of your readers. It will alter the information you include in prkposal research paper and how you present your viewpoints. Graphs and charts are a way to visually support your written analysis and data. They are not intended to be filler to help you reach your page count requirement.
For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or a style guide to writing research papers. The Writing Center has these and other resources on hand, and Writing Center tutors can help you to use them. Always ask your mentor which style to use before you begin to write your paper. The APA style sectiion used in the social sciences and is governed by two basic ideas. The first is that a scientific paper attempts to show something that has already been proven true, so it calls for the past or present perfect tense when you cite the work of others.
Second, the year of publication is important, so you need to feature it immediately after any named source in reearch text. Smyth found that children often studied while watching television. Williams and Maier have defined a new theory of cognition. Use the present tense for generalizations and personal comments. Use the past or present referendes tenses only to introduce the ot of cited sources.
Evidence of the rise of the heroin use exists for every age group, even children. Burroughs and Bruce reported on five incidents of heroin overdose in the under 10 age group. Basic APA Facts Always double space, including the text of your paper, quotations, notes, and the reference page. Leave margins of at least one-inch at the top, bottom, right, and left of every page.
Use a scetion page for reference to parenthetical citations. Within the text of your paper, underline titles of books, plays, pamphlets, periodicals, films, television programs, and recordings; place in quotation marks titles of articles, essays in anthologies, book chapters, and lectures.
To write an academic research proposal is most likened to writing a proposal that addresses a project. The main difference is that the research proposal is a plan to conduct either academic or scientific research, not to develop a project. It is basically outlining proposed research on an academic subject and outlining any types of procedures for quantitative or how to write college research paper proposal research on a subject.
Resdarch a Research Proposal A research proposal for academic writing analyzes a topic and proposes a theory for that topic that may not have been used before. It will also give an in depth account of the methods and theories that will be used to support the hypothesis within the project. The proposal encompasses argumentative writing as well as hardcore research. Arite will usually contain reviews of various books which support the thesis or hypothesis that it proposes to prove.
Example of a Research Proposal i. Introduction Your introduction should provide the background or the skeleton of the paper. You are establishing your basic framework for research. You should probably have a few subsections in the introduction. You can grab the attention of the reader with your topic. You should provide brief background papdr and explore past research. It will discern if your research is qualitative or quantitative and should allude to the thesis statement. Statement of the Problem a. This section will describe the analytical approach that you intend to use.
You will fully describe the problem as it related to your topic of research. Purpose of the Study a. You will need to provide a well rounded, intelligent and substantial statement on why the research that you are doing needs to be done. It will disclose the hypothesis that needs to be tested and any questions surrounding it.
Choosing Your Topic 1 Ask yourself important questions. Although you may be limited by specific classroom or work related guidelines, choosing your topic is the first and most important step in your research paper project. Regardless of whether your topic can be anything you want or has rigid requirements, it is important to keep a few questions in mind: Is there enough research available on this topic. Is the topic new and unique enough that I can offer fresh opinions. Whenever possible, choose a topic that you feel passionate about.
Writing about something you enjoy certainly shows ppaer the final product, making it more likely that you will be successful writing a paper about something you enjoy. If you are writing a research paper for a class, consider the other students. Is it likely that they will also be writing about click to see more topic. How can you keep your paper unique and interesting if everyone is writing t the same thing. Asking a professor for help may seem frightening, but if they are worth anything as a professor, they want you reporrt be successful with your work, and will do what they can to make that happen.
Although it requires a bit more time, you reseacrh the ability to change your topic even after you begin researching others. Method Researching 1 Begin your research. With a topic selected, the next reporf is to begin research. Research comes in numerous forms including web pages, journal articles, books, encyclopedias, interviews, and blog posts, among others. Take time to look for professional resources who offer valid research and insight into your topic.
Try to use a minimum of five sources to vary your information; never rely on only sources. Whenever possible, look for peer-reviewed empirical research.